The online skeleton is an introduction to the human skeleton in Adobe Acrobat pdf format. It started life as a section in a booklet on Forensic Anthropology which I produced for my students at the University of New England. The emphasis in this course was towards procedures which were of relevance to people working in Australia. This shows through in the examples and data used in the pdf document. The online skeleton is a 1.4 Mb file, with a large number of photographs. In order to keep the document at a manageable size the majority of these were scanned at only 72 dpi. Although the photographs are at a low resolution the document is designed to be printed rather than read on screen. Links within the pdf file are indicated by red text, for instance on the anterior and posterior illustrations of the human skeleton, or by thumbnail size pictures within the text.

As the processor speed, and bandwidth available to many computer users has increased over the last decade, I have decided to increase the resolution of the photographs in the pdf file (150-300 dpi). This project will be completed in December 2013. A new document on forensic anthropology, focusing on determining age at death, sex determination, ethnic origin, stature, disease and trauma, in the Australian context will be aded shortly after. I'm hoping that this will assist students and professionals working in Australia, particularly with the problems encountered in using North American and western European standards.

You are free to use these documents as long as it is not for commercial gain and acknowledge where you obtained them from. The contents and emphasis of the online skeleton were strongly influenced by the following two books

Warwick, R. and Williams, P. 1973. Gray's Anatomy, 35th edition. Longman.

Bass, W. 1971. Human Osteology: A laboratory and field manual of the human skeleton. Missouri Archaeological Society.

In order to download and read the online skeleton you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader installed on your computer, as well as the appropriate Web browser plug-ins. Adobe Acrobat Reader software for Windows, Macintosh and Unix can be obtained from Adobe by following the link below. To download the online skeleton follow the other link below.




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